Sunday, January 12, 2020

Legalizing Marijuana Marc Dalcin

Legalizing Marijuana Marc Dalcin Dr. Marie Carroll Ashford Intro To Ethics And Social Responsibility 08/10/12 Marijuana has been at the center of a heated debate regarding its legalization. It has received both criticism and praise in equal measure. Critics refer to marijuana as a â€Å"devil weed† while supporters have often referred it to a â€Å"miracle drug. † Despite the different references to marijuana, there has been a prolonged debate on whether it should be legalized for personal use or not.There are two approaches to the use of marijuana with one involving medicinal purposes while the other involves purposes of pleasure. Medical health is an important aspect of human life and the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes has the importance of improving human health. In the case of using marijuana for pleasure, there is the issue of abuse of drugs, which often results in lawlessness among users. Legalizing marijuana presents an ethical dilemma in the se nse that it is difficult to ascertain the intentions of the users hence the drug may end up being used for the wrong reasons (Burnham, 2011).This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the ethical dilemma arising from the debate on legalizing marijuana and presents the use of deontological reasoning theory in solving the dilemma. The paper also includes a comparison between deontological reasoning and relativism with the eventual identification of the theory that best relates to the personal opinion with regards to the debate on legalizing marijuana. The question of legalizing marijuana Should the use personal use of marijuana be legalized? There are numerous uses associated with marijuana.AIDS and cancer patients find marijuana useful as a drug that restores appetite and fights nausea. Marijuana also has nutritional value because its seeds contain vitamins and can be used in preparing cooking oil (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). Research studies also indicate that the mariju ana can be used in the manufacturing of clothes. The plant has been used in the manufacturing of paper and clothing material for a very long time and is considered produce higher amount of fibre compared to trees. Environmentalists have found the marijuana plant important in addressing the problem of deforestation and soil erosion.Marijuana is beneficial in the restoration of lost soil nutrients. To law enforcement agencies, marijuana is considered to play a major role in increasing the number of crime rates. A significant number of incarcerated criminals have at least used marijuana prior to their arrest. The above analysis on the use of marijuana and its impact clearly points out to the fact that one group will support the legalization of marijuana while the other will oppose such a move. However, the debate can be solved using two theories of deontological reasoning and relativism.Deontological Reasoning The theory of deontological reasoning proposes that actions are either corre ct or wrong in themselves without taking into account their consequences. The theory of deontological reasoning can be best explained with the use of an example of a murder case. In such a situation, a deontologist considers the act of murder as wrong based on the fact that it involves taking the life of another person. It is assumed that humans have the duty of preserving life hence one should never kill no matter the circumstances (Mizzoni, 2009).In a nutshell, this implies that the end does not justify the means. Generally, deontologists believe that human beings have the duty of upholding morality. People have the moral duty to do the right things and avoid doing things that are wrong. The consequences of an action are never considered in determining whether the action is right or wrong. An individual has to consider his or her moral duty in order to make moral decisions. In this case, the personal use of marijuana is considered right or wrong based on the moral duty of users ra ther than the consequence of the plant on its user.The theory of deontological reasoning is connected to three concepts including rights, duties and principles (Burnham, 2011). However, our discussion only focuses on duties in analyzing the debate on legalizing the personal use of marijuana. There is a brief discussion of the concept of rights with regards to the theory of deontological reasoning. If an individual has the right to life, other people have the duty of making sure that such a right is respected. This relates with the issue of legalizing the use of marijuana. From a doctor’s perspective, medical marijuana has medicinal value and can be used in preserving life through healing.In such a case, the government and law enforcement agencies have the duty of respecting the right to life by legalizing the use of marijuana in providing treatment (Gerber, 2004). Marijuana may also be used for a different purpose such as pleasure, which may eventually result in users going i nsane. In order to preserve the life of users, there is an urgent need to make it illegal for users to abuse marijuana. This is because it will reduce the number of cases related to drug abuse hence saving a significant number of the human population from getting insane or engaging in criminal activities.Insanity and criminal actions have may result in the loss of life. The theory of deontological behavior proposes two classes of duties. First, there are general duties, which are commonly identified as prohibitions. Examples of prohibitions include do not kill, do not steal, and assist the needy among other general duties. The second class of duties relate to duties arising from the fact that there exists specific social relationships. For instance, if an individual has made a promise, then he or she has the duty of keeping the promise.Additionally, if one is a parent, then he or she has the duty to provide for the children. In this case, legalizing the personal use of marijuana is considered under the class of general duties (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011). One argument is that marijuana should be prohibited because it involves abuse of substances. On the other hand, doctors with patients have the duty to provide them with treatment even if it involves the use of marijuana as a medicine. Aquinas notes that each person has duties related to personal actions. An individual has a duty to keep promises, but does not have the duty to ensure that promises are kept.According to the theory of deontology, people should be more concerned with fulfilling personal duties but never make attempts of bringing out the most good. This is because it may result in the violation of the concept of a duty. In this case, we only have the duty of meeting the needs of other people rather than maximize the good (Mizzoni, 2009). There are a number of actions that people may choose from but they are free to act as they please. Basically, this means that people have the option of using marijuana for whatever reasons regardless of its consequences. There are instances when duties conflict with each other.W. D. Ross notes that in such cases, one does not require rules in solving such a conflict. One is only required to use their judgment in arriving at a solution. However, there are cases whereby one lacks the criteria that can be used in making decisions (Mizzoni, 2009). Deontologists argue that identifying the intentions of actions can provide a solution. Ross argues that actions are determined to be wrong or right based on the intentions of the agent. Therefore, deontological reasoning justifies the legalization of marijuana on the basis that it is used to improve human health.The use of marijuana can only be considered illegal if users intend to harm others. Relativism According to the theory of relativism, an action is considered moral or immoral relative to the cultural norms of the agent. This means that an action is considered right or wrong based on the moral norms of the culture within which it is practiced. A particular action may be considered moral in one culture while immoral in another culture. Relativists are opposed to the use of universal moral standards in determining whether an action is right or wrong (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011).The United Kingdom may consider the use marijuana as morally wrong while Amsterdam considers it morally right. According to relativists, there is no standard framework to be used in resolving moral disputes such as the legalization of marijuana across different members of society. Relativism is different from deontological reasoning in the sense that upholds societal norms as the determining factor on moral issues. According to relativism, marijuana should be legalized or not based on what society considers being moral or immoral (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011).However, in the case of deontological reasoning, actions are considered to be right or wrong based on the moral duties of an individual. Whereas relativism plac es emphasis on society in solving ethical dilemmas, deontological reasoning places emphasis on the moral duty of an individual. In this case, a relativist may support the legalization of marijuana because it is commonly used among members of his or her society. The same person may oppose legalizing marijuana because it is uncommon to use marijuana or use of marijuana is considered immoral within his society.The theory of relativism raises a number of important issues related to legalizing marijuana. First, different societies have conflicting moral beliefs and that believes of people within a society are deeply determined by their culture. It is therefore important that we incorporate the relativism when arguing for or against legalizing marijuana. Second, the theory provides for the exploration of reasons that influence the differences in beliefs of different individuals. This ensures that we also challenge the beliefs we hold for or against the legalization of marijuana (Burnham, 2011). Marijuana should be legalizedMy personal opinion is that there should be the legalization of marijuana. After making comparisons between the theory of relativism and deontological reasoning, I have discovered that relativism contains views that are closer to my own views. The issue of legalizing or prohibiting marijuana should be determine on the basis of what society views to be right or wrong rather than the moral duties of an individual. The theory of deontological reasoning argues that individuals have the moral duty to do what is right and at the same time avoid what is wrong but such actions are never aimed at aximizing most good (Gerber, 2004). However, relativism argues that an action is morally good or bad based on the cultural norms of a society. In such a case, actions are either considered to be good or bad for the collective benefit of society. This means that marijuana should be legalized because it helps the society or it should be made illegal because it harms the society. There are two perspectives that can be used in supporting the use of marijuana. They include marijuana as a medicine and marijuana as an illicit drug. Medical MarijuanaSince 1972, medical marijuana has been considered an illegal substance in the United States and across a number of countries in the world. In the United States, the congress banned the use of medical marijuana on the basis that it was harmful to the health of consumers and even placed it in the first schedule of the Controlled Substances Act. Generally, the congress considered that the drug did not have any healthy gains for the human body. However, recent research studies on the effects of marijuana provided different results to the claims presented by the US congress.Theses research studies have led to the discovery that medical marijuana can be used as medicine and has the potential to heal a number of diseases (Burnham, 2011). Marijuana contains a chemical THC, which has been proven to be harmless to human body. The new discoveries provide enough reasons for the legalization of marijuana. Failure to legalize marijuana implies that a significant number of people will be denied access to proper medication. Marijuana as an illicit drug Illicit drug use is a major problem and many countries led by the US have found it very difficult to address the problem.Various governments have established a number of programs aimed at solving the problem including treatment and prevention programs, international narcotics control, and drug education programs (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). Despite the efforts of government agencies to solve the problem of illicit drugs use, there is still an increase in the number of drug users. Research studies indicate that marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug. A perfect example is that in 1990, the US recorded approximately 6 million people using marijuana on a weekly basis or more.The increasing usage of marijuana as an illicit drug has bee n closely associated with crime rates all over the world. In 2002, the US reported that approximately 40 percent of jailed adults have at least tried using marijuana. This has the implication that the legalization of marijuana presents a big threat to law and order. Despite the fact that the use of marijuana has become a major problem, the war against its use has proven to be very costly compared to the benefits accrued from legalizing marijuana.For instance, the United States of America spends approximately 12 billion dollars in fighting the problem of marijuana. Legalizing the use of the same drug has the benefit of earning revenues for the government from taxation of marijuana. Instead of the government banning the use marijuana, it should legalize it but ensure that its cultivation, sale and purchase are regulated in order to control criminal activities associated with marijuana (Gerber, 2004). Legalizing marijuana is indeed an ethical dilemma given the fact that it can be used as medicine as well as an illicit drug.However, deontological reasoning proposes that an action is good or bad based on the moral duty of an individual rather than its consequence. The theory therefore proposes that the morality of legalizing the use of marijuana is a personal choice. On the contrary, the theory of relativism proposes that an action is morally ethical relative to the culture within such an action is practiced (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). It is on the basis of the theory of relativism that I propose the legalization of the use of marijuana.The benefits of legalizing marijuana such as healing and economic value far outweigh the cost of prohibiting its use. References Burnham, A. (2011). Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana. New York: GRIN Verlag. Gerber, J. R. (2004). Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group. Jebreal, R. & Lukes, S. (2011). Moral Relativism. New York: Profile Books. Mizzoni, J. (2009). Ethics: The Basics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rosenthal, E. , Kubby, S. & Newhart, S. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Chicago: Running Press. Legalizing Marijuana Marc Dalcin Legalizing Marijuana Marc Dalcin Dr. Marie Carroll Ashford Intro To Ethics And Social Responsibility 08/10/12 Marijuana has been at the center of a heated debate regarding its legalization. It has received both criticism and praise in equal measure. Critics refer to marijuana as a â€Å"devil weed† while supporters have often referred it to a â€Å"miracle drug. † Despite the different references to marijuana, there has been a prolonged debate on whether it should be legalized for personal use or not.There are two approaches to the use of marijuana with one involving medicinal purposes while the other involves purposes of pleasure. Medical health is an important aspect of human life and the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes has the importance of improving human health. In the case of using marijuana for pleasure, there is the issue of abuse of drugs, which often results in lawlessness among users. Legalizing marijuana presents an ethical dilemma in the se nse that it is difficult to ascertain the intentions of the users hence the drug may end up being used for the wrong reasons (Burnham, 2011).This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the ethical dilemma arising from the debate on legalizing marijuana and presents the use of deontological reasoning theory in solving the dilemma. The paper also includes a comparison between deontological reasoning and relativism with the eventual identification of the theory that best relates to the personal opinion with regards to the debate on legalizing marijuana. The question of legalizing marijuana Should the use personal use of marijuana be legalized? There are numerous uses associated with marijuana.AIDS and cancer patients find marijuana useful as a drug that restores appetite and fights nausea. Marijuana also has nutritional value because its seeds contain vitamins and can be used in preparing cooking oil (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). Research studies also indicate that the mariju ana can be used in the manufacturing of clothes. The plant has been used in the manufacturing of paper and clothing material for a very long time and is considered produce higher amount of fibre compared to trees. Environmentalists have found the marijuana plant important in addressing the problem of deforestation and soil erosion.Marijuana is beneficial in the restoration of lost soil nutrients. To law enforcement agencies, marijuana is considered to play a major role in increasing the number of crime rates. A significant number of incarcerated criminals have at least used marijuana prior to their arrest. The above analysis on the use of marijuana and its impact clearly points out to the fact that one group will support the legalization of marijuana while the other will oppose such a move. However, the debate can be solved using two theories of deontological reasoning and relativism.Deontological Reasoning The theory of deontological reasoning proposes that actions are either corre ct or wrong in themselves without taking into account their consequences. The theory of deontological reasoning can be best explained with the use of an example of a murder case. In such a situation, a deontologist considers the act of murder as wrong based on the fact that it involves taking the life of another person. It is assumed that humans have the duty of preserving life hence one should never kill no matter the circumstances (Mizzoni, 2009).In a nutshell, this implies that the end does not justify the means. Generally, deontologists believe that human beings have the duty of upholding morality. People have the moral duty to do the right things and avoid doing things that are wrong. The consequences of an action are never considered in determining whether the action is right or wrong. An individual has to consider his or her moral duty in order to make moral decisions. In this case, the personal use of marijuana is considered right or wrong based on the moral duty of users ra ther than the consequence of the plant on its user.The theory of deontological reasoning is connected to three concepts including rights, duties and principles (Burnham, 2011). However, our discussion only focuses on duties in analyzing the debate on legalizing the personal use of marijuana. There is a brief discussion of the concept of rights with regards to the theory of deontological reasoning. If an individual has the right to life, other people have the duty of making sure that such a right is respected. This relates with the issue of legalizing the use of marijuana. From a doctor’s perspective, medical marijuana has medicinal value and can be used in preserving life through healing.In such a case, the government and law enforcement agencies have the duty of respecting the right to life by legalizing the use of marijuana in providing treatment (Gerber, 2004). Marijuana may also be used for a different purpose such as pleasure, which may eventually result in users going i nsane. In order to preserve the life of users, there is an urgent need to make it illegal for users to abuse marijuana. This is because it will reduce the number of cases related to drug abuse hence saving a significant number of the human population from getting insane or engaging in criminal activities.Insanity and criminal actions have may result in the loss of life. The theory of deontological behavior proposes two classes of duties. First, there are general duties, which are commonly identified as prohibitions. Examples of prohibitions include do not kill, do not steal, and assist the needy among other general duties. The second class of duties relate to duties arising from the fact that there exists specific social relationships. For instance, if an individual has made a promise, then he or she has the duty of keeping the promise.Additionally, if one is a parent, then he or she has the duty to provide for the children. In this case, legalizing the personal use of marijuana is considered under the class of general duties (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011). One argument is that marijuana should be prohibited because it involves abuse of substances. On the other hand, doctors with patients have the duty to provide them with treatment even if it involves the use of marijuana as a medicine. Aquinas notes that each person has duties related to personal actions. An individual has a duty to keep promises, but does not have the duty to ensure that promises are kept.According to the theory of deontology, people should be more concerned with fulfilling personal duties but never make attempts of bringing out the most good. This is because it may result in the violation of the concept of a duty. In this case, we only have the duty of meeting the needs of other people rather than maximize the good (Mizzoni, 2009). There are a number of actions that people may choose from but they are free to act as they please. Basically, this means that people have the option of using marijuana for whatever reasons regardless of its consequences. There are instances when duties conflict with each other.W. D. Ross notes that in such cases, one does not require rules in solving such a conflict. One is only required to use their judgment in arriving at a solution. However, there are cases whereby one lacks the criteria that can be used in making decisions (Mizzoni, 2009). Deontologists argue that identifying the intentions of actions can provide a solution. Ross argues that actions are determined to be wrong or right based on the intentions of the agent. Therefore, deontological reasoning justifies the legalization of marijuana on the basis that it is used to improve human health.The use of marijuana can only be considered illegal if users intend to harm others. Relativism According to the theory of relativism, an action is considered moral or immoral relative to the cultural norms of the agent. This means that an action is considered right or wrong based on the moral norms of the culture within which it is practiced. A particular action may be considered moral in one culture while immoral in another culture. Relativists are opposed to the use of universal moral standards in determining whether an action is right or wrong (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011).The United Kingdom may consider the use marijuana as morally wrong while Amsterdam considers it morally right. According to relativists, there is no standard framework to be used in resolving moral disputes such as the legalization of marijuana across different members of society. Relativism is different from deontological reasoning in the sense that upholds societal norms as the determining factor on moral issues. According to relativism, marijuana should be legalized or not based on what society considers being moral or immoral (Jebreal & Lukes, 2011).However, in the case of deontological reasoning, actions are considered to be right or wrong based on the moral duties of an individual. Whereas relativism plac es emphasis on society in solving ethical dilemmas, deontological reasoning places emphasis on the moral duty of an individual. In this case, a relativist may support the legalization of marijuana because it is commonly used among members of his or her society. The same person may oppose legalizing marijuana because it is uncommon to use marijuana or use of marijuana is considered immoral within his society.The theory of relativism raises a number of important issues related to legalizing marijuana. First, different societies have conflicting moral beliefs and that believes of people within a society are deeply determined by their culture. It is therefore important that we incorporate the relativism when arguing for or against legalizing marijuana. Second, the theory provides for the exploration of reasons that influence the differences in beliefs of different individuals. This ensures that we also challenge the beliefs we hold for or against the legalization of marijuana (Burnham, 2011). Marijuana should be legalizedMy personal opinion is that there should be the legalization of marijuana. After making comparisons between the theory of relativism and deontological reasoning, I have discovered that relativism contains views that are closer to my own views. The issue of legalizing or prohibiting marijuana should be determine on the basis of what society views to be right or wrong rather than the moral duties of an individual. The theory of deontological reasoning argues that individuals have the moral duty to do what is right and at the same time avoid what is wrong but such actions are never aimed at aximizing most good (Gerber, 2004). However, relativism argues that an action is morally good or bad based on the cultural norms of a society. In such a case, actions are either considered to be good or bad for the collective benefit of society. This means that marijuana should be legalized because it helps the society or it should be made illegal because it harms the society. There are two perspectives that can be used in supporting the use of marijuana. They include marijuana as a medicine and marijuana as an illicit drug. Medical MarijuanaSince 1972, medical marijuana has been considered an illegal substance in the United States and across a number of countries in the world. In the United States, the congress banned the use of medical marijuana on the basis that it was harmful to the health of consumers and even placed it in the first schedule of the Controlled Substances Act. Generally, the congress considered that the drug did not have any healthy gains for the human body. However, recent research studies on the effects of marijuana provided different results to the claims presented by the US congress.Theses research studies have led to the discovery that medical marijuana can be used as medicine and has the potential to heal a number of diseases (Burnham, 2011). Marijuana contains a chemical THC, which has been proven to be harmless to human body. The new discoveries provide enough reasons for the legalization of marijuana. Failure to legalize marijuana implies that a significant number of people will be denied access to proper medication. Marijuana as an illicit drug Illicit drug use is a major problem and many countries led by the US have found it very difficult to address the problem.Various governments have established a number of programs aimed at solving the problem including treatment and prevention programs, international narcotics control, and drug education programs (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). Despite the efforts of government agencies to solve the problem of illicit drugs use, there is still an increase in the number of drug users. Research studies indicate that marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug. A perfect example is that in 1990, the US recorded approximately 6 million people using marijuana on a weekly basis or more.The increasing usage of marijuana as an illicit drug has bee n closely associated with crime rates all over the world. In 2002, the US reported that approximately 40 percent of jailed adults have at least tried using marijuana. This has the implication that the legalization of marijuana presents a big threat to law and order. Despite the fact that the use of marijuana has become a major problem, the war against its use has proven to be very costly compared to the benefits accrued from legalizing marijuana.For instance, the United States of America spends approximately 12 billion dollars in fighting the problem of marijuana. Legalizing the use of the same drug has the benefit of earning revenues for the government from taxation of marijuana. Instead of the government banning the use marijuana, it should legalize it but ensure that its cultivation, sale and purchase are regulated in order to control criminal activities associated with marijuana (Gerber, 2004). Legalizing marijuana is indeed an ethical dilemma given the fact that it can be used as medicine as well as an illicit drug.However, deontological reasoning proposes that an action is good or bad based on the moral duty of an individual rather than its consequence. The theory therefore proposes that the morality of legalizing the use of marijuana is a personal choice. On the contrary, the theory of relativism proposes that an action is morally ethical relative to the culture within such an action is practiced (Rosenthal, Kubby & Newhart, 2003). It is on the basis of the theory of relativism that I propose the legalization of the use of marijuana.The benefits of legalizing marijuana such as healing and economic value far outweigh the cost of prohibiting its use. References Burnham, A. (2011). Benefits of Legalizing Marijuana. New York: GRIN Verlag. Gerber, J. R. (2004). Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group. Jebreal, R. & Lukes, S. (2011). Moral Relativism. New York: Profile Books. Mizzoni, J. (2009). Ethics: The Basics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rosenthal, E. , Kubby, S. & Newhart, S. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Chicago: Running Press.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Nature Vs. Nature Nature And Nurture - 969 Words

Human beings are complicated and have complex personalities—and serial killers even more complex. Determining where these personalities come from, especially in serial killers, is a question of speculation asked by psychologists. One theory, nature, is that who people are is determined by genetics. Another theory, nurture, is that people are who they are because of environment. Both theories are in fact correct; however, the cause of personality is not solely nature or nurture, but on a case by case basis, can be both. According to Saul McLeod in â€Å"Nature versus Nurture in Psychology,† nature is â€Å"what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors.† Nature is our prewritten genetic code—genes determine physical characteristics like height, eye color, hair color, but genes can also determine personality. When studies based on nature are performed, fraternal twins are often studied; In â€Å"Nature and Nurture Debate† Sarah Mae Sincero states that â€Å"When fraternal twins are reared apart, they show the same similarities in behavior and response as if they have been reared together† (1). Even though the environment has changed, behavior stays the same. McLeod defines nurture as followed: â€Å"Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g. the product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual† (1). With the nurture factors of surroundings, childhoodShow MoreRelatedNature Vs Nurture : Nature Or Nurture874 Words   |  4 Pages Nature or Nurture. Nature may be all of the genes and hereditary factors with which influence them to become who they are such as physical appearances and personality characteristics. Nurturing impacts people’s lives as well as how they are raised and all the environmental factors. In combination, these qualities can be the true identity of oneself. Many people may argue that nurture appears to a play huge factor in the two, but others may think otherwise. Not having both as a characteristic canRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture1821 Words   |  8 PagesNature and nurture are usually seen as very different things, but they are actually somewhat similar and even integrated. There is a huge debate over which holds more influence over how people develop and whether they behave based on genes or their environment. In Sincero’s article Nature and Nurture Debate she discusses arguments for both sides, saying behavior may be completely in a person’s genes, or it could come from experience and influence. Many people believe â€Å"that the criminal acts, tendencyRead MoreNature And Nurture : Nature Vs. Nurture1780 Words   |  8 PagesAs Nature Made Him: Nature vs. Nurture Human behavior is determined by both biological and environmental factors. Psychologists are interested in learning which of these factors is a greater influence on human behavior and identity. Although psychologists today generally agree that both nature and nurture play a role in conditioning behavior, there is still disagreement about the part that each of the factors have in determining behavior. The nature versus nurture debate focuses around the extentRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Is The Nature Or Nurture?1300 Words   |  6 PagesAoS 3: Student Directed Research Investigation Unit 1 Psychology - Megan Rodrigues RESEARCH QUESTION How is the nature vs nurture debate related to a consideration of the mental disorder, schizophrenia? INTRODUCTION Schizophrenia is categorized by thoughts or experiences that seem abnormal with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in regular daily activities. Difficulty with memory and concentration are sometimes also present. The two hit hypothesis generally refersRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture1821 Words   |  8 Pages Nature and nurture are usually seen as very different things, but they are actually somewhat similar and even integrated. There is a huge debate over which holds more influence over how people develop and whether they behave based on genes or their environment. In Sincero’s article Nature and Nurture Debate she discusses arguments for both sides, saying behavior may be completely in a person’s genes, or it could come from experience and influence. Many people believe â€Å"that the criminal acts, tendencyRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : Nature Versus Nurture1337 Words   |  6 PagesNature vs. Nurture There are many different ways that behavior can be explained, especially on the terms of nature vs. nurture. Aggression is a behavior that has been extensively analyzed in a complex manner and the causes of it can be explained many different ways. Aggression can be defined as hostile or destructive behavior that can cause injury or destructive outlook especially when caused by frustration. Nature can be defined as aspects of behavior that have been inherited or are genetic, whileRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture928 Words   |  4 PagesAs mentioned briefly in my self-introduction post, the nature-nurture portion of our textbook is the one part of this course I stated I looked forward to the most. I have always found myself engaged in a constant internal battle regarding nature versus nurture. Adding to this internal battle is the fact that I am married to an identical twin†¦a twin who drastically differs from his brother in several ways. These differences betw een my husband and his twin have resulted in my questioning if theRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature And Nurture994 Words   |  4 PagesNature and Nurture: How They Interact in Human Development Nature or Nurture, which of these are the most important in shaping who we are? â€Å"Are genetics or environmental factors more important?† (Berk, 2014, p. 5) Researchers have been arguing whether nature or nurture is the most influential force in shaping human beings for a long time. The answer seems to be a complex combination of both nature and nurture. One thing that everybody can agree on is that human beings are more than the sum of ourRead MoreNature Vs Nurture : Nature Versus Nurture882 Words   |  4 Pagestheir parents. Meaning they think Nature is a big part in their life and why they are who they are. The genes in each cell in us humans determine the different traits that we have, more dominantly on the physical connections like eye color, hair color, ear size, height, and other traits. However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like personality, intelligence, sexual orientation, likes and dislikes are gene-coded in our DNA. The nurture theory has experiments showing a child’sRead MoreNature Vs. Nurture : Nature Versus Nurture Essay1939 Words   |  8 PagesNature versus Nurture You got your dark brown hair from your father and you got your looks from your mother, but where did you get your excitement for sports and your love for all animals? A person’s physical characteristics lean more towards genes and heredity, but our genes are not mentioned as much when behavior is the topic. This is how the nature versus nurture debate first began. Scientists who believe in the nature theory believe that people behave the way they do due to heredity and genes

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Problem, Solution, and Barriers Paper - 1505 Words

Economy: Financial Debts on College Students Problem, Solution, and Barriers Paper Problem College is getting more expensive. Due to this fact, students from lower to middle income families have to borrow loans to reduce their burden. The number of college students who are struggling with repayments for their loans as well as increased debt is increasing year after year which can lead to more serious problems. According to the report by Forbes (2013), United States already had $1.2 trillion in student debt so far in 2013 which is 6% of the overall national debt. Such a heavy debt burden causes situations where more students become delinquent without default or loans go into default when students cannot afford to pay them: â€Å"From†¦show more content†¦Royale did not accomplish all this on her own; instead, she got help from College Now in college selection and financial aid (Winston, 2013). Guidance on navigating the college application and financial aid process will help students think more precisely of planning the repayment of their loans so that they will not become delinquent in day in the future. Moreover, in terms of statistics, the positive but moderate correlation between institutional aids and student persistence is proved in the research by Gross, Hossler and Ziskin (2007). This association indicates that financial aids for students will positively help them persist on their study. According to the financial stability that College Now (2013) posted on their official website, $2,725,260 was spent on scholarship awards for the year ending July 31, 2012, which is also a form of financial aid for college students. College Now is asking people to give more to help out. As it states on their website, â€Å"any donation helps College Now to increase college enrollment and success for Greater Cleveland’s students through college access and success advising, financial aid counseling, and scholarship services† (CNGC, 2013, para.1). College Now (2013) listed online that every $500 donation in their advisingShow MoreRelatedP roblem, Solution and Barrier Paper1555 Words   |  7 PagesRunning head: REMEDIATING AGRICULTURAL WATER CONTAMINATION 1 Remediating Agricultural Water Contamination: Problem, Solution, and Barriers Paper Student Name COMM 2367 MWF 9:10 Instructor Name September 29, 2012 REMIEDIATING AGRICULTURAL WATER CONTAMINATION Remediating Agricultural Water Contamination: Problem, Solution, and Barriers Paper Problem Concerns about water pollution are generally focused towards sources that are highly visible and chemically oriented. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Organizational behaviour Power Distribution in an Organization

Questions: Q 1. Why John could not be able to grab his leaders attention instead of giving the best effort towards his work in terms of power in organizational behaviour? Q 2. How leaders power is related to performance of their fellow employees? Answers: Organizational behaviour is referred to the study of the means through which team members interact within a group, for organizational purposes. Efficient organizational behaviour helps to create more efficient business organizations. The key approach of organizational behaviour is to implement a scientific approach to the management of workforce. Organizational behaviour is a broad topic, which includes several domains including leadership, power distribution, team communication as well as how efficiently an organizational change is being managed by the team leaders as well as the team members and how convincing the change is for meeting the organizational purposes (Robbins and Judge 2012). In this case study, a case related to one of the organizational behaviour context will be demonstrated and analyzed. In this case study, the key focus is the power distribution in an organization. Distribution and utilization of power in the organization is crucial for avoiding any kinds of operational or management issue as well as to meet the organizational goals through motivating employees at each and every stages of their work. Power builds a dynamic relationship within the organization and the employees working for the organization and establishes an association between the leader and his follower through positive communication, cooperation and commitment. James was an efficient software engineer, having 1 year experience in his previous company. James is about to join his new company ABC Pvt. Ltd., which he have dreamed a lot to join, as he heard a lot about the organizations goodwill, employee satisfaction and operational efficiency. Thus, he was excited to join the company. Upon his joining, he was introduced with the senior management, his co-workers, his team mates as well as to a road map of companys future growth with respect to its past performance.All the team members gave him a warm welcome. However, he was assigned with a challenging task at his first assignment. His team members helped him in dealing with the task properly. James was happy to be in that team as he was aware of his team leaders efficiency in their field. His team leader was rated as the best professional expert in the industry as he was able to mitigate every detailed issues rose during every assignment, both challenging and easy with a great efficiency. Wit h time, James started to be familiar with the organizational environment. He gave his best effort to meet his professional goal and to accustom with the organizational culture. He got some good colleagues, who helped him at every difficulty he went through his working days. However, it was significantly disaperpointing for James that after completing his probation period with efficient work, it was difficult for James to grab his team leaders attention towards him. Thus, he was becoming demotivated towards his work. James experienced and began to understand the power distribution and use in the workplace and how well people at higher positions at workplace can use it positively as well as negatively to fulfil either their own professional goal or to achieve the overall organizational goal. James learnt that as a result of organizational structures, power in workplace exists, which attributes to the organization and peoples values and behaviour for their leader or workers in the orga nization. James also understood that there are different types of professional relationships, with different characteristics, which shapes the fate of the relationship in the professional context. For instance, in manager to employee relationship, the use of power is extremely critical as well as crucial as it is the communication and interaction between the two drives the smoother work flow. After one year, James was unable to grab attention of his leader to his work and get appreciation or motivation for his work. James attempted to discuss the issue with his colleagues to gain an insight of power and control running through the organization. There are two forms of power including social and personal power, existing the organizational context. Legitimate power from the managers end, the organizational structure influences its application, while defining the role and responsibilities of employees towards it. On the other hand, leaders ability to manage rewarding system defines reward power and expert power is dependent upon the knowledge and expertise of the leader (Nahavandi et al. 2013). These are categorized as personal power. Finally, the coercive power defines the ability of the leaders to manage the team or individual upon witnessing a mistake made by them. Based on the power and other organizational attributes, some form of punishments are provided like payment cut, compensation, suspension or even termination in case of severe issue. These powers are used on the basis of employees behav iour and action; those are violating the organizational rules and culture. Besides his hard work, James wonders, why he never get recognition from his seniors and leader. He heard about his teams good performance from others, but he was unable to understand whether the power is appropriately used and influenced employees and organizational culture. In this context, his colleagues explained that power is the ability exists in a professional relationship both in the conscious and subconscious state. There are different forms of perceiving and feeling the presence of power through Manifest, Latent and Invisible power. In case of latent power, power is in a state of inaction, where the fear or complex resists the fellow worker to show superior power. The Manifest power is the visible attempts by the leader to manage the organization or team. On the other hand, the invisible power is unseen but can significantly felt (Robbins and Judge 2012). From the discussion, James understood to some extent that why he is not being recognized by the senior management. James also understood that it is hard to define a single form of power used and implemented by every people at higher positions. As a dynamic team, there were different kinds of people in Jamess team, who works towards a common goal, whereas his leaders role is also multidimensional, which seeks application of different forms of power to complete the task of the overall team. It is difficult to explain the employees roles in terms of power. Thus, James needs to get more understanding regarding the power distribution and need to stick to his professional goals, while representing his abilities and skills towards the organizational operations, especially in front of his seniors, to be rewarded and recognized. 1. The way power is being used by the leaders or others, is embedded in the organizational culture. It is an attribute of the organizational behaviour of the people having organizational power. Upon joining ABC Pvt. Ltd. James attempted to explore his skills and capabilities to meet his professional standards and achieved his objectives also, but unable to be recognized by his seniors. However, unconsciously, he was practicing the latent power, promoted by the expert power, which was being practiced by his leader. This power practice held James back to represent his expertise to the leader, for which he was not noticed by his leader. He knew that his leader had the best expertise in the industry and he did not attempted to violate the situation by showing his expertise, as he was scared to lose his job. On the other hand, the expert power of his leader dominated Jamess performance (DuBrin 2013). 2. Power is being use in the organizational context to control the performance as well as to allocate resources for maximized performance by the employees. For exploring different roles and responsibilities, leaders attempt to use different forms of power, appropriate for the situation. Employees performance is managed by different forms of power, which relates the leaders use of power and employees performance. For instance, reward power is used by the leaders to assess the ability of employee to be rewarded for his performance. In contrast, coercive power is being used by the leaders, while they need to deal with some negative organizational behaviour or performance that is hampering the organizational performance by an employee, which promote them to use negative action including punishments and penalties. On the other hand, as a guide, the leader uses expert power to promote employees performance through exploring his own expertise, which influences employees to achieve their pro fessional goals (Clegg 2013). References Clegg, S., 2013.The Theory of Power and Organization (RLE: Organizations). Routledge. DuBrin, A.J., 2013.Fundamentals of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Elsevier. Nahavandi, A., Denhardt, R.B., Denhardt, J.V. and Aristigueta, M.P., 2013.Organizational behavior. SAGE Publications. Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T., 2012.Essentials of organizational behavior. Essex: Pearson.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

What makes Emily Dickinson Essay Example For Students

What makes Emily Dickinson Essay Dickinson is known for the usage of emotion in her poetry. One topic she wrote about was death. Early on in Emily career she was capable of pressing her reflections on the precise moment of death into remarkably concise expressions, stated Porter(67). In many poems, Dickinson doesnt Just talk of death, she personifies it. An example is the poem Because I could not stop for Death. Dying is compared to an unexpected ride in a horse-drawn carriage(Daniel 391). Also, Dickinson thought the suffering involved in personal relationships captured the impulse of poetry(Chase 191). This idea of pain expressed in the poetry of Dickinson is seen in the poem Heart! We will forget him. In the following stanza:When you have done, pray tell meat I may straight begin! Haste! Lest while youre lagging remember him! Monsoons 5)We can tell that she suffering from the memories of a past lover. Dickinson wants her heart to forget about him, so that her mind may do the same. All her life, Dickinson was never married, but spoke very often of a lover in her poetry. However, attempting to relate any of her love poems to a particular man will always be precarious(Chase 153). We will write a custom essay on What makes Emily Dickinson specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Although many of her poems speak of a passion for a man, it may not have necessarily been about her. Dickinson could have been writing about any womans fife in a certain occasion. Pre-appointed pain was Dickinson favorite area of feeling, how one chooses it and the consequences of the choice(Adams 464). In addition to Dickinson themes, her influences came from certain subjects and events. One of the subjects that emerged in her writing was religion. Dickinson was involved with Puritanism all her life. She attended the Mount of Holyoke Seminary School, which specialized in Puritanism. However Dickinson attended only one year because she longed for spiritual nourishment, not for the dogmatic belief and tortured conscience(Edison, Religious Influences. N. P. ). In other words, Dickinson didnt like to make moral Judgments, instead she focused on the limited quality of human action. For example, Nathaniel Hawthorne often described the damage of sin, and what it had upon an individual. Dickinson however was a realist, who was more interested in psychology. She wrote about situations such as, at what point did one reach heaven, and studied views on how grace was given. Aside from religion, the Civil War also influenced Dickinson writing. Over half of her poems were written during this time and many believed this is what gave her poetry the tense feeling(Meltzer 44). Dickinson deploys imagery of captivity in the poem I Never Hear the Workspace. In the following lines: I never hear of prisons broad/By soldiers battered down/But I tug childish at my bars Only to fail assignations 89), Dickinson is identifying herself with a soldier, who is in a sense trapped in the war, as if Hess trapped behind bars. Dickinson allows her imagination to run wild, and this is what attracts many readers. The subject of religion and the event of the Civil War influenced Dickinson poetry tremendously. Dickinson unique styles of mechanics are also what separates her poetry from the est.. Dickinson did not follow the rules of punctuation. She often capitalized random words that were of importance to her. Below are the third and fourth lines from the poem Of nearness to he sundered Things: The Soul has special times-Nine Dimness looks the Oddity-Monsoons 153). If an editor were to look over these lines, the first thing they would alter is the incorrect capitalization of Soul, Dimness, and Oddity. Also, Dickinson used dashes throughout her poetry. This device gained rhythm and emphasis, stated Dickinson(Meltzer 30). However, the editors did not view it that way. In fact in order to get her work published she was told she needed to change her way of writing(Daniel 377). Dickinson later explained herself to a literary critic. When I try to organize my little force explodes, she told Thomas Higgins(Bloom 56). .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .postImageUrl , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:hover , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:visited , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:active { border:0!important; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:active , .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2ca5f649c53b02fc76c7276c5c4a9aff:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: What do the poems "Churning Day" and "An Advancement of Learning" tell us about Seamus Heaney's childhood EssayEvery editor she came across had one goal, and it was to make her writings traditionally poetic(Daniel 377). Along with Dickinson incorrect use of punctuation, she was also known for using a variation of literary devices. Slant rhyme(close but not exact rhyming sounds) added a great deal of shock toward Dickinson poems. This literary device is shown in the mom The Soul selector own society. In the following lines:level known her from an ample incantations One-Then close the values of her attentions Stone -(Daniel 378)One and Stone have a slant rhyme. Dickinson also wrote a lot of her poetry using hymn meters. A hymn meter differs from a traditional meter by counting syllables, not feet. Dickinson however took liberties with the meter. She used enjambment the breaking of a line where there is no natural or syntactic pause(Campbell, Common Questions. N. P. ). For example, in the second stanza of I cannot live with you, she rites:The Sexton keeps the key to-putting pour life- His Porcelain -Like a cup- Monsoons 62). If Dickinson were traditionally using hymn meters, she wouldnt have marked the first, third and fourth lines with dashes and their would be no pauses. Dickinson own rules of punctuation and literary devices, is what gave her writing such a personal feeling. Out of the many characteristics in Dickinson poetry, her emphasis on emotional pain, the subjects and events that influenced her, and her unique use of mechanics, is what capture reader. By Just reading a couple of her poems, one could infer hat she was a personal writer.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The The Kingdom of God Essay Example For Students

The The Kingdom of God Essay Natasha BellChristian EthicsOctober 8, 1998The Kingdom of GodThe Kingdom of God is a commonly used phrase in the Christian community. It rolls off the tongue of believers worldwide, yet the meaning of this dominant idiom is rarely explained. What exactly is the kingdom of God? What does it mean to be apart of Gods kingdom? These inquiries gnaw at the heart and soul of every believer, and the principles shared by Pastor Chad Hyatt have successfully provided answers. The word kingdom can be divided into two words the kings domain. Of course, as Christians, God(and, or Jesus) is our king. This then implies that we, believers, are Christs subjects. We are Gods domain. Therefore, the kingdom of God is not abstract or immaterial, but very real and living heavy with a purpose to carry out. The words kings domain imply the act of ruling. We can therefore draw the conclusion that Christ in us rules our hearts, and that we are his domain or place of rule. It was mentioned earlier that the kingdom of God has a purpose to carry out. This purpose encompasses many things. It includes the recruitment of the others into the kingdom and carrying out the heart and will of the king, or God. We will write a custom essay on The The Kingdom of God specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now This definition and explanation of the kingdom of God brings its purpose to one final word: INFLUENCE. God said that we are to be salt and light. The King has commissioned his domain to attend church, read the Bible, and to pray in order to train so that we may be able to compete with Satan in the world. We must train ourselves in order to influence, so that we may recruit. This is truly serving our king, which is the purpose behind salvation. In essence of how Pastor Chad Hyatt relates it, the kingdom of God is in us. It is where the king rules. It is who the king rules. It is how the king conducts his rule. When altogether stated, the kingdom is us.